The Colors of Ireland

40 shades of green on Inis Oirr, Aran Islands, Ireland

The Emerald Isle. A country with more verdant shades than the eye can distinguish.

It just stands to reason that the national color of Ireland is green.

Or is it?40 shades of green on Inis Oirr, Aran Islands, Ireland

How many shades of green can you see?

Does Ireland Really Have 40 Shades of Green?

During a visit to Ireland in 1959 country singer Johnny Cash wrote a song titled ‘Forty Shades of Green’.

But are there truly 40 shades? It would seem a good guess, though no one has ever recorded all 40 distinct shades if the green in Ireland.

But if you count everything from the yellow-green of new spring grass to the deep blue-green of the ocean, I bet you could come up with at least 40 different shades.

Speak Irish: glas (pronounced gloss) is the Irish word for green

St. Patrick’s Blue

Long before Johnny Cash’s ’40 Shades of Green’, St. Patrick’s Blue was considered the national color of Ireland. A dark, rich hue, St. Patrick’s Blue was adopted by the Anglo-Irish Order of St. Patrick in the 1780s.

Today this blue is seen on the Coat of Arms of Ireland and the Standard of the President of Ireland, as well as the racing colors of horses at the Irish National Stud.

Coat of Arms of Ireland and the Standard of the President of Ireland
The coat of arms of Ireland is a St. Patrick’s Blue background with an Irish harp

Speak Irish: gorm (pronounced ger-um) is the Irish word for blue


The Irish Harp, the official national emblem of Ireland, is always shown in gold.

Speak Irish: óir (pronounced  or) is the Irish word for gold

The Irish Tricolor

The national flag of Ireland is three colors: Green, White, and Orange, with the green at the hoist.

The first tricolor Irish flag was presented to Thomas Francis Meagher in 1848, a gift from a group of French women sympathetic to the Irish nationalist cause. It was intended to symbolize the inclusion and hoped for peace (white) between the Roman Catholics (green) and the Protestants (orange).

Flag of Ireland | Irish Tricolor
The Irish Tricolor has been used as the national flag of Ireland since 1916.

Speak Irish: oráiste (pronounced er-aw-ste) is the Irish word for orange

What is the Official Color of Ireland?

The short answer is that there isn’t one.

While the Irish government uses the blue of the Coat of Arms for everything from the President’s standard and the cover of the Irish constitution to the carpets in the Dáil (Parliament) and Seanad (upper house of Parliament), green is recognized the world over as being the color of Ireland.

References if you wish to know more:

Hear spoken words in Irish:




Learn more Irish! Get a free Irish for Beginners course from Bitesize Irish Gaelic.

Collins Very First Irish Words (affiliate link from Amazon) is a great resource for learning the first, simple Irish words. The paperback version should come with a CD to assist with pronunciation.

What Do the Celtic Knots on Irish Dance Dresses Mean?

Foy School of Irish Dance

The next time you’re at an Irish Festival or a dance competition take a few minutes to look at the dresses that surround you. While the flashy solo dresses will first catch your eye, look to the groups of matching dresses.

Young students at the Foy School of Irish Dance
The Celtic knot for the Foy School of Irish Dance is easily recognizable on the young dancers’ dresses.

Celtic Knots on Irish Dance Dresses

The Celtic knot work on the dresses tells you, at a glance, which school the dancer attends.

The Celtic Revival movement by the Gaelic League to promote Irish culture – including Irish dance, language and sport- in  1893 led to development of Irish dance ‘costumes’ for performance and competition.

Popular Irish dance legend says that each school chose their individual knot from the Book of Kells but according to Dr. John Cullinane, historian for The Irish Dancing Commission in Dublin and author of eleven books on the history of Irish Dance,

“There is no truth at all that schools had to choose Celtic knots from the Book of Kells. None what so ever.

 Each school was free to design their own Celtic designs from whatever sources or even / usually designed their own. Originally (the designs were) very broadly based on the Book of Kells  and other similar Celtic works of art –  to justify their Irishness and use on costumes .”


Can you find your Celtic knot, or a similar one, in the Book of Kells?

Is There a Purpose of the Celtic Knot on Irish Dance Dresses?

Because each school has their own knot-work dancers can be instantly recognized by their dresses, jackets, or clothes. Think of the school knot as a ‘team emblem’ that shows your pride, loyalty, and support of your school.

Printable Celtic Knots

The Foy Celtic Knot

Foy School of Irish Dance

The Foy School of Irish Dance knot is a Celtic shield knot. An ancient symbol of protection, this knot was placed near ill people or on battle shields for warding off evil spirits.

If you think about it, this is the perfect knot for wearing into your own ‘battle’ at a Feis!

The shield knot is recognized by its four distinct quadrants or corners.

References if you wish to know more:

The Meaning of Celtic Knot Symbols

The Evolution of Irish Dance Dresses (opinion article)

Order Dr. John Cullinane’s books directly by email: [email protected]



Fire, Fairies, and the Sweets of May

bluebell flowers

As an Irish dancer you’ve probably learned the ceili dance The Sweets of May. But did you ever wonder about the story behind it?

It All Begins with the Festival of Bealtaine

The Gaelic fire festival of Bealtaine (bee-awl-TAWN-neyh) marks the arrival of summer. A ‘cross-quarter day’, it marks the half-way point between between the spring equinox and the summer solstice.

In Irish mythology the beginning of the summer season on May 1 was celebrated with great bonfires built on a hilltop the evening before. These fires were often built in pairs – referred to as ‘twin bonfires’- so people and cattle could pass between. This ‘purification’ by fire was only one ritual to help them transition safely into the new season, and was was especially important as animals were moved to their summer pastures at Bealtaine.

Speak Irish: Bealtaine is the Irish word for May.

The Legend Behind the Sweets of May

It is told that an old dancing master in the county of Armagh was returning home on May Eve from a céilí in the early nineteenth century (early 1800s). As he passed by a fairy rath he spied the fae performing this dance. When the dancers reached the clapping movement all the bell-shaped flowers shook on their stems, ringing in time with the tune.

Bluebell Flowers and the story of the sweets of May
When the fairies dance on May Eve bell shaped flowers, like these bluebells, ring in unison with the tune.

Inspired by the fairies the dance master is said to have created The Sweets of May or, in Irish, Aoibhneas ne Bealtaine. 

The Significance of Flowers on May Day

Guard the house with a string of primroses on the first three days of May. The fairies are said not to be able to pass over or under this string.’

~ From the National Folklore Collection, University College Dublin. NFC S.455:237. From Co Kerry.

While the fae may have been able to make the bluebells ring during their dance, these wee magical creatures can’t cross the yellow primrose. This symbol of the first day of spring was laid across doorsteps to encourage fairies to visit and bless the house and those living in it- but keep them from causing mischief inside!

This ritual led to the tradition of little gifts of flowers left on the door on May Day, which led to May Day baskets that you may remember with popcorn and small sweets.

References if you wish to know more:

Old Irish Customs that Survive in Modern Ireland with author Felicity Hayes-McCoy (podcast)

Field Guide to Irish Fairies (book; Amazon affiliate link)

Enough is Plenty: A Year on the Dingle Peninsula by Felicity Hayes-McCoy (book; Amazon affiliate link)

Celtic Festivals– an introduction